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The Malaysian Surveyor

offered by the top five property                  Age         Social Class                      Housing Values
developers in Malaysia.                          Type
                                                 Size         Education                            Economy
The main contribution of this           Stage in Life Cycle    Income                                Family
paper is in providing a systematic                                                                 Personal
categorisation of lifestyle housing                          Occupation                              Social
based on the advertised features.
Structurally, this paper discusses                                       LIFESTYLE
the literature review, the research                          Figure 1: Influences on lifestyle
methodology, results and
discussions and finally concluding       could be achieved legally (tenure         frame and construct the final lifestyle
with developers’ lifestyle ideas.       security) or physically (gated and        product (Kriese & Scholz, 2012).
                                        guarded communities). The pattern
1.1 A primer on                         would be repeated once a need is          1.2 The evolution of
lifestyle housing                       fulfilled.                                 housing typologies in
Maslow’s theory known as the            The above explains the demand
Hierarchy of Human Needs                side of lifestyle housing that in         The innovation of housing typologies
discussed in his book A theory of       turn has to be sufficiently studied        in Malaysia is not a recent event, but
human motivation has become the         and generalised by developers –           rather something that has occurred
main reference in studies showing       producers of the final product – into      over the years. For the purpose of
the link between human motivation       typologies that specific consumer          this paper, the timeline commenced
and housing behaviour. One such         segments would identify with. In          from the country’s independence to
usage of the theory is establishing     marketing, lifestyle research has         reflect the beginning of the modern
the link between housing preference     long been developed to address the        Malaysia.
and housing satisfaction.               deficiency of traditional psychology/
                                        demographics or “psychographics”          1957-1980 (Post-independence–
According to this theory, humans        research in examining consumer            early industrialisation): From
are motivated to gratify five related    behaviours and preferences                vernacular housing to housing
basic needs; in ascending order,        (Beamish et al., 2001; Vynke, 2002).      estates
physiology, safety, love, esteem, and
self-actualisation. The hierarchical    Introduced by Lazer (1963), the           Housing typologies in Malaysia have
order is important, with a lower need   concept of lifestyle is a composite       evolved to reflect the shift from the
monopolizing one’s thoughts and         of motivations, needs, and wants of       agriculture-based economy of the
actions and must be satisfied before     individuals. According to Beamish         1950s to the 1980s manufacturing-
the self could turn to the next higher  et al. (2001), lifestyle is influenced    based economy. The functions of
need.                                   by a number of lifestyle factors that     housing can be seen to change
                                        may be grouped under household            alongside the various dominant
Furthermore, the gratified need          type, social class and housing            typologies, as shown in Figure 1.
would no longer serve as a              values (see Figure 1). In the interest
motivator. Fundamentally, this theory   of economics and efficiency,               In the 1950s and 1960s, the main
can explain why people’s housing        developers must identify, generalise      typology was the basic shelter-based
preferences improve alongside           and categorise the requirements of        traditional vernacular Malay houses
their socio-economic status. For        each lifestyle housing typologies.        that can be found in both rural and
instance, a house used to be a mere     It is developers’ interpretation          urban settings. In the 1970s, the
shelter, which is the lowest of the     and mediation of house buyers’            ubiquitous terraced house in planned
hierarchical level.                     preferences, in other words               housing estates was seen as an
                                        developers’ lifestyle ideas, that really  upgrade to the previous traditional
However, with time there occur
improvements in education,
economy, social status and family.
The gratified physiological need
would now be replaced with the need
for safety. In housing, housing safety

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